Materials Characterization for Process Integration of Multi-Channel Gate All Around (GAA) Devices

Authored by: Gangadhara Raja Muthinti a, Nicolas Loubet a, Robin Chao a, Abraham A. de la Peña a, Juntao Li a, Michael A. Guillorn a, Tenko Yamashita a, Sivananda Kanakasabapathy a, John Gaudiello a, Aron J. Cepler b, Matthew Sendelbach b, Susan Emans b, Shay Wolfling c, Avon Ger c, Daniel Kandel c, Roy Koret c, Wei Ti Lee d, Peter Gin e, Kevin Matney e, Matthew Wormington e | SPIE 2017, February 1, 2017

Multi-channel gate all around (GAA) semiconductor devices march closer to becoming a reality in production as their
maturity in development continues. From this development, an understanding of what physical parameters affecting the
device has emerged. The importance of material property characterization relative to that of other physical parameters has
continued to increase for GAA architecture when compared to its relative importance in earlier architectures. Among these
materials properties are the concentration of Ge in SiGe channels and the strain in these channels and related films. But
because these properties can be altered by many different process steps, each one adding its own variation to these
parameters, their characterization and control at multiple steps in the process flow is crucial. This paper investigates the
characterization of strain and Ge concentration, and the relationships between these properties, in the PFET SiGe channel
material at the earliest stages of processing for GAA devices. Grown on a bulk Si substrate, multiple pairs of thin SiGe/Si
layers that eventually form the basis of the PFET channel are measured and characterized in this study. Multiple
measurement techniques are used to measure the material properties. In-line X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
and Low Energy X-Ray Fluorescence (LE-XRF) are used to characterize Ge content, while in-line High Resolution X-Ray
Diffraction (HRXRD) is used to characterize strain. Because both patterned and un-patterned structures were investigated,
scatterometry (also called optical critical dimension, or OCD) is used to provide valuable geometrical metrology.
Keywords: OCD, scatterometry, gate-all-around, GAA, XPS, XRF, strain, SiGe