Scatterometry and AFM Measurement Combination for Area Selective Deposition Process Characterization

Authored by: Mohamed Saib, Alain Moussa, Anne-Laure Charley, Philippe Leray, Joey Hung, Roy Koret, Igor Turovets, Avron Ger, Shaoren Deng, Andrea Illiberi, Jan Willem Maes, Gabriel Woodworth, Michael Strauss | SPIE 2019, February 1, 2019

With the Area Selective Deposition (ASD) technique, the material is deposited on desired areas of the sample surface. The
control of such process implies accurate characterization of the deposited material on both growth and non-growth surfaces.
This requires, first a good measurement capability to quantify the geometry of the deposited layer, and second, a proper
assessment of the process selectivity. In this work, we show how to combine two complementary measurement techniques
to overcome their individual inherent limitations 1 for ASD applications. Scatterometry, the first measurement technique,
has been applied to the characterization of the deposited layer geometry properties because of its high sensitivity to
dimensional features and material. To complement the ASD performance characterization with the local information,
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been used to access the topography details of the analyzed surfaces. We have
analyzed the AFM images with the power spectral density (PSD) approach to identify undesired material deposition in the
non-growth area and thus to characterize process selectivity through the comparison to a reference sample.
Experimental validation of the scatterometry and AFM techniques for ASD applications has been done on wafers having various
selectivity levels. The scatterometry metrology measured accurately the thickness of the deposited layer on both growth
and non-growth areas when the deposited layer became uniform. The lateral overgrowth was quantified as well with the
same technique and showed some changes from process condition to another. In addition, the PSD analysis applied to the
AFM images was able to probe minutely the nanoparticles nucleation on the non-growth area and as result has revealed
the selectivity transition regimes. Later, we have built a hybrid model by the combination of the 2 metrologies results and
validated its predictions on test wafers.
Keywords: Scatterometry, AFM, Area-Selective Deposition, Power Spectral Density, Hybrid metrology, ALD