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X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF)

The VeraFlex XF product option is equipped with a unique low-energy XRF capability. This solution provides an additional channel of elemental information based on the analysis of the secondary electrons emitted from the sample since both XPS and XRF signals can be detected and analyzed simultaneously.

Highlights and Benefits

  • Elemental analysis of material properties both from the surface and depth of thin films
  • Identification of the chemical element from analysis of the secondary electron emission
  • Simultaneous thickness and composition data without correlation

The onset of the photoelectric effect can also effect some additional interactions of light and matter.

The removal of an inner shell electron resulting from an energetic incident x-ray renders an instability in the electronic structure of the material being analyzed. Since each element has electronic orbitals of characteristic energy, there are a finite number of ways in which the unstable vacancy can be filled.

If the unstable vacancy is filled by a higher shell electron, the difference in shell energy released as a photon (i.e. x-ray). Analysis of this characteristic secondary x-ray emission or x-ray fluorescence is known as XRF.